The Nepal Communist Party
was the ruling political party in Nepal, the largest communist party in South Asia, and the third largest communist party in Asia from its foundation in 2018 to its dissolution in 2021. It was founded on 17 May 2018, from the unification of two leftist parties, Communist Party of Nepal and Communist Party of Nepal. The unification was completed by the Party Unification Coordination Committee, after eight months of negotiation. The two predecessor parties subsequently dissolved, making way for the new united party. The party retains the electoral symbol of the CPN, the sun. The party is the largest political party in the House of Representatives, National Assembly and in all provincial assemblies except No. 2. K. P. Sharma Oli, Prime Minister of Nepal since 15 February 2018, and former Prime Minister of Nepal Pushpa Kamal Dahal both served as the chairmen of the party. After internal conflicts in the party and the dissolution of parliament, the party splintered into two major factions. On 8 March 2021, Nepal’s Supreme Court stated that the allocation of the name "Nepal Communist Party" upon the merger of the CPN-UML and CPN, and by extension the merger itself, was void ab initio
, as the name was already allotted to a party led by Rishiram Kattel, and that the NCP stood "dismissed". Upon the ruling, the two predecessor parties were revived in their original state immediately prior to the merger, although should the two wish to merge again with proper procedure being followed, it would be fully allowed.